Periodontitis is more prevalent in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than in nondiabetic individuals and is recognized as the sixth most common complication of T2DM. Therefore, maintaining periodontal health is important to reduce risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with T2DM.
To maintain periodontal health in T2DM patients, it is valuable to identify the factors associated with periodontitis in the population. Yamamoto et al. (2020) examined the association between socioeconomic status and periodontal status among patients with T2DM. The research was published in Clinical and Experimental Dental Research.
Objectives: Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because periodontitis is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease, identification of risk factors of periodontitis is valuable to control periodontitis effectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of education and household income with periodontal status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: Participants were 2,436 patients (59.8% male, aged 29–93 years) with type 2 diabetes mellitus from 27 medical clinics. Participants’ medical records and information about education, household income, general health status, and health behaviours were collected. Periodontal status was assessed in a nearby dental office. Multiple linear regression analyses and ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of periodontal parameters with education and household income after adjusting for age, sex, general health status, and health behaviours.
Results: Multiple linear regression analysis showed that mean probing pocket depth was not significantly associated with education and household income. Ordered logistic regression analyses showed statistically significant odds ratios (ORs) of junior high school (reference: university) for the tertiles of the percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (OR: 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11–1.81), percentage of mobile teeth (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24–2.03), and number of teeth present (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.39–0.65), and statistically significant odds ratios of high school (reference: university) for the tertiles of the percentage of mobile teeth (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.06–1.51) and number of teeth present (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.62–0.88), but not household income.
Conclusions: These results suggest that low education is one of the important predictors of poor periodontal status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is important to provide targeted interventions including periodontal education in junior high school.